Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was the king of Macedonia in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. He seemed like the embodiment of Mars. It’s hard to imagine what Aristotle taught him. There has been speculation that he either killed or arrraged the death of his father
The Achaemenid Persian Empire, also known as the First Persian Empire or First Iranian Empire, was a Persian empire founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation.Darius III, whose original given name was Artashata and was also known as Codomannus by the Greeks. He was the last King of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.During his brief reign, he sent messages to Alexander offering, money, power and the hand of his daughter in marriage.
The offers became increasingly generous.Alexander had no interest whatsoever. It was a case of winner take all. There have been precious few in the history of humanity with greater bloodlust that Alexander.
Darius wanted Alexander as a friend and made no attempt to stop him from crossing the Euphrates. However he finally realized he had to stop the Macedonians from sacking the Persian Empire.
Attempting to stop Alexander, Darius prepared a battleground on the Plain of Gaugamela, near Arbela (present-day Irbil in northern Iraq), and posted his troops to await Alexander’s advance.His total forces greatly outnumbered those of Alexander, whose forces amounted to about 40,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry.
The Battle of Gaugamela, also called Battle of Arabela, saw the clash between the forces of Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. It decided the fate of the Persian empire and beginning of what I’ll call Pan Hellenism. The huge part of Asia previously known as Aryana, Babylon, Egypt and part of India became part of the Macedonian Empire. Increasingly the language became Greek. The victory all but ensured that he would be he master of southwest Asia.
Background and context have always been crucial to the practice of Mundane astrology. We need to know something about who, where and when. Claudius Ptolemy and other astrologer – astronomers have put certain countries, or even large parts of continents under the governance of planets and luminaries. That can only be done with knowledge of the parts of the Earth in question.
This is one of the most momentous events in the history of civilzation. Barbaric as it was, it founded a new kind of world where people from all over the world can speak the same language and share thier knowledge on almost anuything. If we move forward a few centuries, this culminates in the School of Alexaandria.
The spherical chart at the top of the page is set for the time of the defeat of Darius or victory of Alexander, depending on your point of view. This is much closer portrayal of the astrology of Mesopotamian, Babylon, Persia and Chadea at that time in history. Theirs was a visual astrology and they didn’t use the horoscopic charts we are familiar with today. The first thing you might notice is the substantial shift due to precession of the equinox.
The horoscopic chart set for the same time of the defeat might seem to be unremarkable. There doesn’t seem to be anything in it that’s good enough to ensure a victory or bad enough to spell the end of a great Empire and the death of its King. But the applying Mars opposition to Saturn, the South Node and the Moon is particularly viscous because of the participation of the Nodes.
When we compare this to where the Eclipse fell, we can see how this could set the stage. However, when we bring the stars into the picture, this opposition is overwhelming. The Sun and Mars are with Spica. Spica is usually associated with brilliance. This can be seen clearly in the second spherical chart. The battle was won because Alexander was one of the greatest military strategists in history. This nullified the huge discrepancy in number or troops. If you are unsure of the exact date of an event, using parans as well as conjunctions to fixed stars can be very helpful
There was a Total Lunar Eclipse 20 September 0331 B.C. at 9:16 pm, not long after sunset at 22 Piscses 45.
John Timperman has brought this to my attention: “Saturn was rising in the path of ANU and Jupiter is setting, it was considered a very bad omen for the reigning king. ”
Darius’ astrologers would have been keenly aware of this and that might explain why Darius III tried to bargain with Alexander and not stop him crossing the Euphrates .
The time of the lunar eclipse Jupiter was with Antares, one of the 4royal stars. It is interesting to see that in the famous omen of unfortunate king Ibbi-sin, last king of the UR III dynasty (2004BC,November 3 ) which was taken prisoner , his city destroyed and his people killed, Jupiter is heliacally rising and also together with Antares,. Koch-Westenholz and Hunger translate the version of the omen of Virolleaud ( L’astrologie Chaldeenne) which is found in 3 places in Enum Anu Enlil : If the Yoke Star ( Jupiter) in its appearance faces towards the west, you watch the whole sky and if no wind stirs : there will be famine,a disastrous reign. It is an omen of Ibbi-Sin king of Ur, who went to Elam in captivity, weeping “.
What the astronomical part of the omen means is probably the fact that ,at its heliacal rise Jupiter ,accompanied by antares was seen comparatively high. When this happened it was the only heavenly body in the eastern sky. Saturn ( the old king?) was setting (dying) in the west and the full moon was shining on the horn of Taurus ,which was also probably not considered a good omen.
John – Thank yoiu for these gems. I havn’t read L’astrologie Chaldeenne, but will try to find a copy. It was generous of you to bring so much substance to the discussion
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