Caption Persian astronomy. Historical artwork showing a group of astronomers led by Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din Tusi (Nasireddin or Tusi, 1201-1275) at his observatory near Meraga (Maragheh) in what is now northwestern Iran. The observatory was established in 1259. Several other prominent astronomers worked here with Tusi. Twelve years of observations produced the Ilkhanic Tables of planetary movements, completed in 1272. This artwork is a miniature painting from the manuscript ‘Tevarih-i guzide’ (circa 1563).

With respect to the great Persian astrologers of the pre and early Islamic period of the Sassanian dynasty  (224-651 CE)  one requires some working knowledge of the influential Bundahisn, meaning “Primal  Creation,” also known as the Zoroastrian Book of Creation.

A series of cataclysmic invasions of Persia resulted in the destruction of the bulk of the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta. The first assault was suffered during Alexander of Macedonia’s invasion in 330 BCE. This was accompanied by devastation and mass killings of priests who had preserved the work in an oral tradition. Then between 640-650 CE came the Arab Muslim invasions bent on mass conversions and the burning of Persian texts, including the Avesta. What fragments remained were largely destroyed in the Mongol and Turkic invasions. The result is that “today, out of the twenty-one books of the Sassanian era Avesta, only one complete book and fragments of others survive. The surviving texts are nevertheless one and a half times the size of the Koran, and are arranged as five books plus fragments.” (See K. E. Eduljee).

This reality makes the recovery of the Greater Bundahishn that much more important. This brief article is meant as a concise introduction to the work and its enormous significance.

The Persian contribution to early astronomy and astrology should not be underestimated, At the time of Persian history, particularly from the last decades of the fifth century BC until Alexander’s conquest was the most fertile period of Babylonian mathematical astronomy.:

“Astronomical schools existed in Uruk, Sippar, Babylon and Borsippa. The Achaemenians maintained an atmosphere favourable to the development of science. Under Darius, a great Babylonian astronomer, Nabu-rimanni (Naburianus), was instructed to carry out a study of lunar eclipses and arrived at calculations more accurate than those of Ptolemy and Copernicus. His works were translated and used for many centuries by all including Seleucid and Parthian rulers of Persia. His picture of Heavens was borrowed by the Greeks and eventually reached the famous Greek scientist Democritus. The terminology employed by Naburianu includes spheres, orbits, ecliptic, inclination, celestial equator, poles, circular motion, revolutions, retrogression, moon’s highest north and south latitudes. All were used extensively by Greek astronomers including the brilliant Eudoxus of Cnidus, precursor of Euclid. Another well known Babylonian astronomer under Persian rule, Kidinnu (Cidenas) of Sippar, distinguished the solar year from the lunar, discovered the precession of the equinoxes and arrived at an exact calculation of the length of the year, making an error of only 7 minutes, 41 seconds.” See Astrology & Astronomy in Iran and Ancient Mesopotamia by Massoume Price.

As I have indicated elsewhere:, The Greater Bundahishn is a compendium of ideas that are believed to pre-date Zoroastrianism, but the core is true to the cosmology of that religion. There are also some elements that would indicate knowledge relatively contemporary to its ninth-century appearance.

Fortunately, a brilliant new critical edition and translation of this work was completed by Domenico Agostini & Samuel Thrope and published by OUP in 2020 All references to the Bundahisn in the current article to this edition, unless otherwise stated.

I will focus specifically on the Creation of the Lights as described in The Greater Iranian Bundahishn. I would contend that without an understanding of this, the astrological writers of the period can be but partially understood. It will become apparent that although the text is first and foremost a Zoroastrian and Persian text, it reveals the extent to which Hellenistic and Indian traditions were well understood by the Persian author(s).

It behoves us to familiarize ourselves with the philosophical, cosmological or mystical underpinnings of any given system. This is an essential step in understanding the context of extant writings in Persian astrology, of which there is an abundance, most of which has only recently been translated into English.

It is also important to understand that: “Astronomy and its companion ‘applied science’ of astrology, were central features of the intellectual landscape of the early Islamic period . Observations of the heavens as well as the science of astronomy, have long pedigrees in Iranian culture generally and in Zoroastrian texts specifically. During the Sassanian period, Babylonian, Greek, and Indian traditions were synthesized in a single science that was part of the inherited Islamic intellectual tradition. “A special class of professionals were active in the art at the Sasanian court, producing horoscopes and predictions, as well as serving as translators and specialists on mathematical and scientific issues.” (Bundahisn p.16).

In a commentary to his own translation, Zeke J.V. Kassock states that “The Bundahishn is a collection of ideas, cosmogonies, cosmologies, histories, genus species and geographies. Most information is from pre-Sassanian Iran and Sassanian Iran, though some are from post-Islamic Iran. It can be divided into two categories, the Greater (Iranian) Bundahishn, and the Lesser (Indian) Bundahishn.” (The Greater Iranian Bundahishn A Pahlavi Student’s 2013 Guide p.i )

This Greater Bundahishn is approximately twice as long. as the Lesser (Indian ) Bundahishn. Neither is considered scripture. The Greater, in particular, draws heavily from the Avesta and Zoroastrianism, often starting sentences with “Gōwēd pad Dēn
kū”, “It is said in the Religion.” (ibid.)

The Bundahishn, or Zoroastrian ‘Primal Creation’ 17th or 18th Century – British Library Mss Avestan 22The text of the Bunda­hišn “probably grew through different redactions, but it is not possible to provide a precise date the first compilation was made. . Most scholars subscribe to the view … that it is “an original work on cosmology in which the scattered teachings of the Avesta were coordinated and brought into a system by an author who, living presumably towards the end of the Sassanian epoch, possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of the Avestic literature … This author also had some knowledge of the Greek scientific literature that had reached Iran under the Sassanians. For example, the contents of chapter XXVIII bear a similarity to the Hippocratic treatise Peri hebdomádōn. Chapter II on astronomy manifests, besides nearly prehistoric views, an acquaintance with Greek and Indian science..” See the article in Encyclopedia Iranica for a more complete treatment of this.

The recent Oxford edition is splendid, distinguishing itself not only in its linguistic brilliance but also with respect to its insightful and extensive commentary. It is however expensive and is not likely to be available to most of my readers. I, therefore, quote from Zand-Akashi: Iranian or Greater Bundahishn. Trans. Behramgore Tehmurus Anklesaria Published for the Rahnumae Mazdayasnan Sabha by its Honorary Secretary Dastur Framroze A. Bode. Bombay 1965.

What follows is the complete text of the second chapter of The Bundahishn. using that edition. The entire chapter is less than three printed pages in length, but contains the essence of Persian astronomical sensibility.

CHAPTER II: As regards the procreation of the Luminaries.

Illustration of the zodiac in the Bundahišn, ed. and tr. M. Bahar, 1990, p. 58.

1. Ohrmaz created [forth] the Luminaries, between the Sky and the Earth; the stars of the constellations and also those which were not of the constellations [were stationed], then the Moon, and then the Sun.

2. As, He first created the firmament; the stars of the constellations were fixed thereon, especially these twelve, whose names are: the Ram, the Cow, the Twins, the Crab, the Lion, the Husk of Corn, the Balance, the Scorpion, the Centaur, the Goat, the Pot, and the Fishes, which are subdivided into twenty-eight asterisms of reckoning, the names of which [are these]: Padevar, Pesh-parviz, Parviz, Paha, Aze-sar, Beshn, Rakhvat, Taraha, Azara, Nahn, Maian, Avdem, Mashaha, Spor, Husru, Sroi, Nur, Gelu, Grafsha, Varant, Gao, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kaht-sar, Vaht, Mayan, Kaht; all the original material creations made their residence thereon, so that when the Adversary, would arrive, they might fight against their own enemy and the creatures might be saved from their antagonist; each of these constellations is a specimen of a soldier and veteran, who is

posted for battle; six thousand four hundred eighty (thousand) small stars are created forth, for help, [those which the astronomers now number, besides those innumerable, as, they are for their mutual-help.]

3. Over these constellations, He appointed four chieftains, in four directions; He appointed a chieftain over these chieftains; He appointed many innumerable stars that are [33] recognised by name, in various directions and various places, as givers of vigour, by cooperation, to these Constellations.

Constellations of Ursa Major, detail, from Persian Manuscript 373. Zodiac. MS PERSIAN (373). Work ID: mcauucez.

4. As one says: “Sirius [Tishtar] is the chieftain of the East, Sataves the chieftain of the South, Antares [Vanand] the chieftain of the West, the Seven Bears [Haptoring] the chieftain of the North; the Lord of the throne, Capicornus, whom they call the Lord of Mid- Heaven, [is the chieftain of chieftains; Parand, Mazd-tat, and others of this list are also chiefs of the directions

5. And astronomers call these stars of the directions and sides as leaders; and they mention the first magnitude, the third magnitude, …… as to the big, small, and middling stars.

6. He ordained this firmament in the semblance of a year: the twelve constellations like twelve months every constellation having thirty degrees, just as every month has thirty days.

7. He appointed the Seven Bears [Haptoring] in the Northern direction, thither where Dozakh [=hell -JHP] was, when the Adversary came in; a band from every region, out of the seven regions, is attached to it, for the organisation of the regions, in the mingled state: for that reason, it is called the’ Seven Thrones.’

8. He ordained the sphere, nature and class of these constellations so that they might remain in motion, in the mingled state.

9. Again, He arrayed, above them, the unmixable stars, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might repel him in the combat, and would not let him mingle with the higher sphere; He appointed the Glory of the good Mazdayasnian Religion, as chieftain

The horoscope of the world, after D. N. MacKenzie, “Zoroastrian Astrology in the ‘Bundahišn’,” BSOAS 273, 1964, p. 514.

over them; the place is called the brunt of the battle, the manifestation of purity in the mingled state; for this reason, they are called unmixable stars, because, when the Adversary came, they did not mingle with him; astronomers name a firmament which is above the firmament, where through there is no ebb and descent, for they cannot judge the mixable stars and the substance of the pure-bodies.

10. Above that, He created the Moon having the seed of the Beneficent Animal.

11. Above that, He created the shining swift-horsed Sun.

12. He appointed the Moon and [35] the Sun, as chieftains of those mixable stars; that is, they are all bound to the Sun and the Moon.

13. Above the Sun. He created the Throne of the Beneficent Immortals, which is attached to the Endless Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd.

14. These, too, are the six stations of the six creations, just as the creations of material life are six.

15. And in the midst of the half of the firmament, He appointed the Wind, the Cloud and the Fire Vazisht, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might seize the water of Sirius and produce rain; with the Spirit of the Water; He formed their connection, too, also with the Sun; the Moon, and the Stars; His valiant Sirius, who is the Chieftain of the East, is co-worker and associate of the Fire Vazisht, the Wind and the Cloud.

16. Of these stars, the big ones are as large as an eagle which is of the magnitude of a house, the middling are as large as a four-sided granary, and the small ones are as large as the head of a domestic ox; the Moon is as large as a race-course of two hathras; as, each hathra on earth is like an average frasang; the Sun is as large as Eranvej.

17. Until the coming of the Adversary, the Moon, the Sun and the stars were standing still, they did not move, and were passing their time with purity, and it was always mid-day; after the coming of the Adversary, they were in motion and would not desist from that motion, until the end.

18. The motion of the Sun is like that of a very large three-feathered arrow, when a very big man darts it from a very large bow; the motion of the Moon is just like that of an average three-feathered arrow, when an average man darts it, from an average bow; the motion of the stars is like that of a small three-feathered arrow, when a short man darts it from a small bow.

19. Of these constellations; Tishtar [Orion], Besn, Taraha, Azara, Pateywar, and Pesh-parviz are of very swift motion.

Sirius (bottom) and the constellation Orion (right). The three brightest stars in this image—Sirius, Betelgeuse (top right) and Procyon (top left)—form the Winter Triangle. The bright star at top center is Alhena, which forms a cross-shaped asterism with the Winter Triangle.

20. The mean duration of the Sun, from the time when it leaves a constellation until it attains to the next, is as much as is requisite for a man who takes up a stone and throws it.

This brief introduction to the core of the Zoroastrian myth as it relates specifically to the operation of the planets, luminaries and fixed stars provides valuable context in relation to the study of Persian astronomy and  astrology. In a subsequent article, we may address the nature of the constellations in greater detail.


Vishnu et Lakshmi on_Shesha Naga, Lakshmi stimule le rêve de la création.

Ceci est une continuation du mysticisme astrologique dans The Surya Siddhanta. Depuis que cet article a été écrit il y a plusieurs mois, j’ai réussi à obtenir d’autres textes sur l’astrologie indienne qui ont permis d’expliquer ou de combler des lacunes apparentes. J’ai également eu la chance de rencontrer des astrologues indiens très accomplis qui étaient disposés à discuter de la façon dont les techniques indiennes pourraient être utilisées de concert avec l’astrologie hellénistique, je suis reparti avec deux techniques qui semblent être particulièrement utiles et, à ma façon de penser, ajouter dimensions indispensables.

Mon temps ici n’est pas d’approfondir aucun de ces textes mais je les mettrai à la disposition du lecteur qui souhaite une boussole plus large. Je préviendrai à l’avance que moins c’est souvent plus, en particulier lorsque l’objectif est de nature pratique. Bien sûr, en particulier lorsque l’on discute de l’astrologie indienne, la pratique et le discernement spirituel sont aussi importants que dans ses homologues hellénistique, persan, égyptien, druidique ou babylonien.

Cela ne peut servir que d’introduction la plus simple à deux techniques utilisées en astrologie indienne. Raconter toute l’histoire nécessiterait le récit et l’analyse nés de millénaires. Je présente donc cela avec la plus grande humilité dans l’espoir que cela suscitera l’intérêt d’autres praticiens de l’astrologie hellénistique.

Jyotish se traduit par «science de la lumière» et se réfère à la forme profonde et mathématiquement sophistiquée de l’astrologie originaire des premiers textes. Jyotish est aussi vénéré dans le sous-continent que l’astrologie authentique est largement sous-évaluée et même injuriée dans l’Occident moderne. Les principes essentiels de Jyotish, y compris la nomenclature de la science de la lumière, ne sembleront pas étrangers à un pratiquant de l’astrologie occidentale traditionnelle. En fait, il existe donc une chaîne ininterrompue de cette science de la lumière qui remonte à des temps très anciens.

Dans un article précédent, nous avons discuté de La Surya Siddhanta d’une date inconnue. Il était facilement disponible au 11ème et 12ème siècle après JC. La traduction la plus couramment vue est celle d’Ebeneezer Burgess, publiée en 1860 .. Cependant, il existe des preuves solides qu’il était beaucoup plus ancien, peut-être existant sous forme orale bien avant cela.

Avec une provenance incertaine, nous devons prendre ce que nous avons à ses propres conditions., Assisté par référence à d’autres travaux astronomiques indiens. La relation entre l’esprit et la matière est commune à tous, sous une forme développée, elle est pertinente pour les sciences, bien que des nomenclatures différentes puissent être adoptées. J’ai choisi d’employer le terme d’astrologie indienne parce qu’elle est pratiquée de l’Himalaya à Kanyakumari avec étonnamment peu de variance, tout bien considéré.

«Le yantra est un diagramme mystique ou astronomique utilisé comme amulette ou charme. Bénéfique pour se débarrasser de l’insuffisance, des concurrents, du ressentiment et des mauvais effets des planètes »- Neeta Singhal

Le mot védique peut être trompeur, tout comme la nomenclature de l’astrologie hindoue, car il est utilisé non seulement par les hindous, mais aussi par les sikhs, les jaïns et les musulmans. Il existe également de nombreux pratiquants de Jyotish dans le monde, mais il n’y a aucun doute sur son origine sous sa forme actuelle. Il existe également un lien indéniable avec les yogas et les dieux sont d’origine indienne à la fois védique et postérieure.

Pour des raisons qui ne sont pas entièrement claires, le mélange des cultures astrologiques au cours des millénaires n’a pas entraîné le transfert complet de certains des éléments les plus utiles de l’astrologie indienne. Peut-être que le principal d’entre eux est le système Nakshatras et une compréhension adéquate des nœuds. Les sources classiques, islamiques et européennes ont tendance à être vagues sur le sujet des nœuds et certains ne les mentionnent pas du tout. Mon amie et collègue Clelia Romano a fait un travail splendide pour sonder les opinions des nœuds et a fourni 40 lectures de cartes de personnes atteintes de maladie mentale pour montrer comment les nœuds fonctionnent. Un pdf de son site est disponible ici .

Les Nakshatras sont des divisions de la roue zodiacale par 27 qui sont ensuite subdivisées pour arriver à la signification mystique de 108. Les divisions de quatre sont appelées padas et on leur attribue des qualités planétaires. Les Nakshatras sont ancrés aux étoiles, donc on pourrait utiliser un zodiaque tropical avec des Nakshatras sidéraux. Ce n’est pas une pratique courante en Inde, car le zodiaque sidéral est généralement (mais pas entièrement) à toutes fins. ils sont Lunar Mansions et Rahu et Ketu sont également basés sur Lunar.

Ce graphique simple montre les positions de Nakshatras, montrant les seigneurs planétaires et la divinité dirigeante.

Pour l’astrologue occidental, l’utilisation d’un zodiaque sidéral pose problème. Pensez un instant que vous avez toujours su que vous étiez une personnalité ardente avec un Lion Soleil, un Ascendant Bélier et une Lune en Sagittaire. La lecture sidérale voudrait que vous soyez un Soleil Cancer, un Ascendant Poissons et une Lune Scorpion. Le changement élémentaire à lui seul est énorme, avant même d’envisager les signes. se. Nous sommes tropicaux. Notre système est basé sur les solstices et les équinoxes et le sidéral est basé sur les étoiles. Mais comme la fortune l’aurait, nous pouvons utiliser le Tropical pour les signes et les Nakshatras en même temps.

La question se pose, bien sûr, de savoir pourquoi un astrologue occidental renoncerait aux divers systèmes de 28 Lunar Mansion en faveur du modèle indien. La vérité est que les hôtels lunaires ne sont pas beaucoup utilisés en Occident, en grande partie, je pense, car ils nous fournissent très peu d’informations et même cela peut être vague. De plus, chaque version nous donne des informations différentes. La grande exception est l’utilisation de la magie astrologique et le réglage fin d’un élément particulier d’une carte ou bien en tant qu’outil de rectification de carte.

En raison de la nature du nakshatra ,. nous pouvons discerner beaucoup sur la nature du premier point de contact de l’âme avec le monde matériel, comme m’a expliqué un astrologue indien très crédible. Maintenant, bien sûr, de telles choses sont pertinentes dans une pluralité de systèmes. Mais nous ne suggérons pas réellement quelle était la nature d’une incarnation précédente ou même à venir. De l’école de théosophie est venue la confiance fanatique que l’on pourrait simplement inventer une association en utilisant uniquement les nœuds.

Il faut dire que l’idée de la réincarnation ou de la transmigration des âmes est solidement établie dans la tradition européenne de Platon aux druides, qui ont peut-être même précédé les sages indiens à ce sujet. Les brahmanes ont appelé les druides leurs cousins ​​ou frères européens. En effet, le christianisme primitif avait des partisans de la réincarnation jusqu’à ce qu’ils soient réduits au silence par l’orthodoxie. La métaphysique d’un cadre mystique existe donc déjà, mais l’astrologie traditionnelle semble éviter la question. Je suis tout à fait sûr que la raison en est l’influence et les menaces des religions abrahamiques.

Ainsi, un astrologue hellénistique ou persan pourrait utiliser Nakshatras, avec un zodiaque tropical et en fait, cela est fait par des astrologues indiens à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur du sous-continent. Permettez-moi de vous donner un exemple de la façon dont cela peut être fait. Il s’agit d’un graphique calculé dans un programme hellénistique, montrant les 27 Nakshatras, les Padas et les décans chaldéens traditionnels. Il se trouve que le système Whole Sign est le plus utilisé sur le sous-continent indien. L’astrologue hellénistique n’est pas tenu d’apporter des changements essentiels au-delà de l’utilisation du Nakshatra et de la prise des nœuds aussi au sérieux que Vettius Valens.

Nous trouvons que la Lagna (Ascendant) est au 27e degré de la Balance – la Nakshatra est Vishaka, qui occupe 20-00 Balance à 3-20 ′ Scorpion. Jupiter est le Seigneur et le symbole est une arche et Indra et Agni président. Indra est l’un des plus anciens dieux du Rigveda et Agni est à la fois un dieu et du Feu. La description courte ou les caractéristiques générales: comprennent l’énergie, la force et la puissance potentielle, d’apparence brillante, bien parlées et aptes à gagner de l’argent. Le Pada est Gemini et Mercure est très heureux ici. Jupiter apporte un idéalisme moteur à cet endroit. Le personnage est décrit comme étant versé dans les Écritures. Nous dériverions donc une personne charmante et efficace, un idéaliste désireux de changement vers la justice, mais dont la santé est susceptible d’être fragile.

Parfois, le Moon Nakshatra est étudié, avec le Soleil ou tout autre point. Cependant, la Lagna semble particulièrement importante et incommensurablement plus si elle est considérée par rapport aux nœuds. L’astrologue occidental pourrait utiliser cet outil astrologique utile. Cependant, nous n’avons pas obtenu tous les avantages avant d’avoir étudié Rahu et Ketu à travers les yeux de l’astrologie indienne:.

La création de Rahu et Ketu est racontée dans le mythe de la création lui-même. L’histoire est celle d’une immortalité volée par un démon dissimulé. C’est la partie la plus pertinente de l’histoire à nos fins:

Les devas (demi-dieux) ont fait appel à Vishnu, qui a ensuite pris la forme de Mohini et en tant que belle et charmante demoiselle, Mohini a distrait les asuras, a pris l’amrita et l’a distribuée parmi les Devas, qui l’ont bu. Asura Rahu-Ketu s’est déguisé en deva et a bu du nectar. En raison de leur nature lumineuse, le dieu solaire Surya et le dieu lunaire Chandra ont remarqué le changement de côté. Ils ont informé Mohini. Mais avant que le nectar ne puisse passer sa gorge, Mohini lui a coupé la tête avec son discus divin, le Sudarshana Chakra. Mais comme le nectar était descendu dans sa gorge, il n’est pas mort. Depuis ce jour, sa tête s’appelait Rahu et son corps s’appelait Ketu. Plus tard, Rahu et Ketu sont devenus des planètes. L’histoire se termine avec les Devas rajeunis battant les asuras.

Komilla Sutton  écrit: «Rahu Ketu est le nom donné aux nœuds de la lune. Rahu est le nœud nord et Ketu est le nœud sud. Ce sont des points sur l’écliptique où la Lune est en alignement avec le Soleil et la Terre. Ils indiquent le point précis d’harmonie avec les trois influences les plus importantes de notre vie: le Soleil, la Terre et la Lune. Cette relation joue un rôle important dans le développement de la conscience individuelle. »

Les forces obscures qui gagnent des attributs divins par la tromperie sont un conte archétypal de la chute. La tentative de tuer l’Asura ne fit que le rendre plus maléfique. Il n’est pas vrai que les N | odes soient toujours maléfiques, mais elles le sont souvent et doivent être étudiées de près. Qu’ils soient ou non démoniaques n’est pas à débattre. Ils ont délibérément nommé des planètes fantômes. Ils sont secrets et pas toujours faciles à détecter.

Selon Sutton: «Rahu se comporte comme Saturne. Il traite de drogues, de poisons, de sur-ambition, de jeu de pouvoir, de connaissances cachées… L’élément de Rahu est l’air. Il traite de tous les aspects des activités aériennes liées aux voyages aériens, aux accidents aériens, à l’aviation, aux pilotes, etc. , exécution, maladies, désenchantement, etc. »


Rahu est la tête et pour notre considération immédiate, la bouche. Rahu a toujours faim et analyse. Il peut manger mais n’a pas le corps nécessaire à la digestion. Cela apporte avec lui une nature obsessionnelle. Bien sûr, il y aura toujours d’autres considérations nécessaires pour obtenir l’image complète, mais imaginez que Rahu était dans la cinquième maison. La faim perpétuelle pourrait entraîner un jeu excessif, voire incontrôlable, ou peut-être entraîner ce que l’on appelle maintenant la dépendance sexuelle. Les désirs sont hors de contrôle.

Dans la dixième maison, Rahu pourrait se manifester comme un désir insatiable de proéminence. Dans la deuxième maison, Rahu ne peut jamais avoir assez de possessions. Ce besoin n’a presque rien à voir avec la richesse. On le voit chez des collectionneurs compulsifs qui ne sont jamais rassasiés et toujours à la recherche de la prochaine pièce. Le lecteur ne sera jamais satisfait car Rahu ne peut pas digérer. Il a toujours faim et la faim est insatiable. En astrologie indienne, la 2ème maison inclut la parole comme sa province. Cela pourrait être une voix douce avec une langue parfois pointue.

Rahu dans la première maison appartient à des gens qui ne semblent pas en avoir assez d’eux-mêmes. Ils peuvent bien paraître égoïstes aux autres. Mais bien sûr, Ketu sera dans sa septième maison. Cela amène une crise dans la poursuite des relations. De toute évidence, les autres éléments du graphique affecteront la façon dont cela est exprimé.

Si nous nous référons à notre exemple de graphique, où nous avons trouvé le Nakashatra Vishaka, sur l’Ascendant, nous ajoutons maintenant Rahu à la neuvième maison, cela pourrait renverser les bonnes qualités en exagérant. La personne fictive pourrait tendre vers un certain fanatisme dans la religion et les domaines de Jupiter.

Ketu est le corps sans tête. Kee5tu peut généralement indiquer quelque chose sur ce qui s’est passé, y compris ce qui a précédé votre être physique dans cette vie. Ce que Ketu veut avant tout, c’est une libération de Moksha. Parce qu’aucune «chose» ne peut donner cela, Ketu rejette ce qui est disponible là où il est. Donc, Rahu a un appétit insatiable et Ketu est du côté opposé du spectre. Ils sont le désir et l’aversion personnifiés si vous voulez. SI cela se traduit par le rejet d’éléments négatifs, alors tout va bien. Mais si des éléments utiles sont jetés, cela pourrait être assez dévastateur.

Surtout, les «règles Ketu de Nakshatra sont Ashwini (Bélier), Magha (Lion) et Mula (Sagittaire), la triplicité du feu. Ce sont les premières étapes des cycles de vie. Mars, Soleil et Jupiter, les dirigeants du Bélier, du Lion et du Sagittaire sont amis entre eux. Ensemble, ils représentent la force, l’âme et la sagesse, Ketu a la capacité de donner dans ces domaines. Un bon mélange de ces trois planètes dans nos cartes natales nous oriente vers la recherche de Moksha, la libération finale du cycle de la vie et de la mort. » Voir Sutton, Komilla 

Ketu Dev Tail of Demon Snake

Le plus intrigant est que Mula est le plus difficile et le plus douloureux des Nakshatra parce que le travail consiste à couper toute illusion. En ce qui concerne la triplicité du feu, nous pouvons dire que le guerrier, le sage et le sol sont considérablement dynamisés par Ketu dans la quête de Moksha.

Les exemples que j’ai donnés concernent le thème natal qui est le point central de cet article. J’ai aussi longtemps utilisé les nœuds dans les graphiques mondains. Mundane a son propre ensemble de règles, mais les mêmes principes s’appliquent. J’ai remarqué un nombre très élevé de catastrophes dans lesquelles les nœuds sont au centre d’un point clé du graphique, mais même ici, il y a beaucoup d’autres éléments à considérer et l’astrologue chevronné saura quoi faire.

Résumé: J’ai essayé d’offrir une introduction et un aperçu de deux éléments interconnectés de l’astrologie indienne, que je pense qu’il serait assez facile pour la plupart des astrologues hellénistiques de les intégrer. Les Nakshatras sont ancrés dans les étoiles et le Tropica Zodiac dérive des points Solstice et Equinox. Les nœuds sont si mal documentés dans la tradition occidentale pour les rendre presque inutiles. De nombreux écrivains ne les mentionnent pas, les mentionnent en passant et se contredisent généralement. L’astrologie indienne n’a pas ce problème. De plus, l’astrologie hellénistique et indienne ont déjà beaucoup en commun. Les deux utilisent les sept planètes / luminaires et les nœuds. Les deux favorisent l’ensemble du système de signalisation. Je devrais penser que le point de désaccord le plus difficile est les zodiaques. Mais il est permis d’utiliser celui que vous connaissez.

Il y a peu de praticiens stellaires de l’astrologie indienne qui ont publié des travaux extraordinairement fins pour aider l’occidental à comprendre l’astrologie du sous-continent indien: je recommande n’importe quoi du Dr David Frawley, Light on Life de Hart Defuw & Robert Svoboda. Astrologie hindoue ancienne pour l’astrologue occidental moderne de James Braha,  The Nakshatras de Dennis M. Harness. Les nœuds lunaires: crise et rédemption. & Le Nakshatra: les étoiles au-delà du zodiaque. par Komilla Sutton.

Rahu-Rahula-forme tibétaine-

Puruṣārtha – The Four Pillars

Shree Yantra

The term classical astrology is often used in a rather narrow way. The fact is that we are really discovering the convergence of different cultures, from the Hellenist to Persian and both to Indian. Babylonian and Egyptian. There is no absolute boundary between one and another. This is not to say that there are no significant differences., but on many occasions, the commonalities are hiding in plain sight Zodiacal Releasing, Firdaria and Dashas are Time Lord systems with very similar intent and comparable methodology and indeed expression.

This is part of a series on Jyotish in relation to western traditional astrology. It has long been my contention that we understand best when we understand how things came to be and how wisdom was transmitted through what was then the known world. Indian, Persian and Hellenistic astrology clearly have common roots. It is my view that by studying elements of Indian or other schools of astrology and philosophies that we enrich our understanding of our own.

Puruṣārtha is an element of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism) that can easily be applied in Traditional Western astrology as well as to Jyotish. Puruṣārtha might be profitably employed by a range of systems, certainly even beyond astrology itself. At the core of all traditional astrology, there are various forms of creation myths, which are quite similar. To understand that is to get to the root of authentic astrology.

The number four is referred to extensively in astrology, as in innumerable other contexts and most. cultures. The most obvious of these are the four seasons, the four elements, the four directions, the four winds and the four humours.

Hinduism created or recognized a four-part guide to live, including all dimensions of life in the Puruṣārtha. These have both personal and universal dimensions and can be expressed quite well by reference to the divisions of the horoscope.

As in many elements of Santana Dharma, there is no consensus about whether these pillars should be considered hierarchically, but they do constitute a complete system. They give us four elements of the circle of life, existing in four sets of trigons. This is the same as the Western House System to that extent. Both Hellenistic Astrology and Jyotish both use the Whole Sign system, bring us closer together.

However, the progressive element is not so widely understood in the West. We see how the fourth house of Moksha Houses proceeds to Death in the 8th and to Moksha. in the 12th. All three phases are required and work with the other Puruṣārtha. They also impart significance to the houses of the horoscope. In Hellenistic Astrology, there are two fortunate houses, the 11th and. the 5th along with two evil houses. 12 and 6. This is a simplification but serves to se5t the scene. The Second House is the Gates to Hades and the House at the other end of the axis, is the House of Death. Indian astrology is similar but not identical. I believe the origin of assigning such caution to the 2nd house is due to a concern for materialism that is rarely seen in most parts of the modern West but is still central to Indian thought. Asceticism is celebrated in the lives of Saints. Clearly, from this point of view, attachment to the material world is considered deleterious.

Houses 1, 5 & 9  are the Dharma Houses and the element of fire, marked in red.. The Artha houses, 2,, 6 & 10 are Earth and marked in saffron. 3,11 & 7 are air and the Moksha houses are 4.8 and 12, and associated with the water signs..


For Hindus and Buddhists, dharma is the moral order of the universe and a code of living ethically that embodies the fundamental principles of law, religion, and duty that governs the social structure and indeed all rares of human life. The Hindu worldview asserts that by following one’s dharma, a person can eventually achieve liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth (samsara) Difficulties grasping an exact definition of what dharma means in Hinduism arise because there are so many uses of the word in stories and scriptures. Bot the essence of living an ethical life us shared by all. Hinduism is the religion of one god with a million faces. There are dualistic schools and non-dualistic schools. In the final analysis, understanding is very much the same.

But mostly it’s equated with principles such as duty, honour, justice, good works, character, and virtue. In many stories of Hinduism, when a person is in trouble, they turn to dharma to find their way out of a difficult situation.


The astrological houses of Artha are 2, 6 & 10, as you might expect. These are concerned with what one possesses, of work and the hope of recognized achievement or eminence. Artha (Sanskrit: अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy. The word is translated as “meaning, sense, goal, purpose or essence” depending on the context in which it is used. This includes aspirations and attainment.

Plucking Tea in Assam, India.


Best understood as aesthetics, the definition of Kama involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfilment, the pleasure of the senses, love, and the ordinary enjoyments of life regarded as one of the four ends of man (purusharthas). This would naturally be closely related to the associations we have of Venus in Traditional Western astrology. Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali) means desire, wish, longing, but it would be a great mistake to think of this as trivial. I(n Hinduism, it is understood that without desire there would be all In the time before time and creation, Vishnu dreams the Universe reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he “dreams the universe into reality” It is Lakshmi who stimulates the Universal dream by her touch.

page from the kama sutra

So, in fact, the Universe was born of desire. The astrological houses are 2, 5 & 9.  This will seem somewhat alien to the western astrologer, but that is because we tend to want to separate pleasure from wisdom. The pleasures of Kama include the pleasures of the higher mind. If our pleasures lead us astray, then Dharma is there to reset the balance.


Moksha is understood as liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth known as samsara.

Vivekachudamani, a popular text on Moksha, defines it as the following:

Beyond caste, creed, family or lineage,
That which is without name and form, beyond merit and demerit,
That which is beyond space, time and sense-objects,
You are that, God himself; Meditate this within yourself.

-Vivekachudamani, 8th Century AD

The first house in the natal chart is always the ‘Udaya Lagna’ or the Ascendant, the sign that is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of birth.  his is the same in Hellenistic astrology. The other houses follow the zodiacal sequence and the trigons each deal with an aspect of human life. Here we have the water trigon – the three stages of enlightenment. It is crucial to remember that the entire system is required and that difficulties in one house can easily affect the other signs in the trigons.

The fourth house in Jyotish is about roots, including Ancestry. Everything that refers to strong ties to your native place comes under the dominion of this house. But chiefly, it’s about roots. Without roots, there can be no blossoms.

It will be seen that Indian concepts and techniques may be gainfully introduced into virtually any form of astrology, without detracting from the form currently being used. This actually has intriguing similarities to Hellenistic astrology Both systems have at their root the will to be better and to further the good. The works of Plotinus and Philo remind one of Hindu metaphysics. In other words, they are both centred in an ethical framework.

Shri Vishnu Lakshmi

Iran & the Aries Ingress Chart

I’m not a fan of using several charts to determine the nature of an event or whether it will occur at all. Here, I draw exclusively on the Chart of the Year as calculated for Tehran at the Spring Equinox and Nouruz. The general query is to assess the position of Iran at a time when once again, The Islamic Republic of Iran is being threatened with more than sanctions and covert attacks. It seems almost an absurdity to ask if Iran will be at war. It has been on a war footing since 1979 and many times prior to that. This is more of an examination than a prediction.

Predicting wars is a very bad habit. Assessing relative strengths, what’s at play and the nature of the subject is much wiser, because wars can be prevented. I’m a firm believer in studying what Tibetan Buddhists refer to as “causes and conditions.” These can be so powerful that it seems they cannot be resisted. The fact is, we do not live in a purely deterministic realm and, if we did, there would no point in talking about it.

This is a fascinating chart. The Lord of the Year is the Sun and here we see him setting in the Sign of his Exaltation. He is also the Hyleg. The Seventh House of open enemies is disposited by a strong, exalted and angular Mars, conjunct Saturn. So both malefics are involved in the matter of that house, both are in a square relationship to Sun, Venus and Mercury.

Tens of thousands gathered across Iran Wednesday in a massive show of strength for the country’s Islamic rulers after days of deadly unrest, with state television showing vast crowds marching…

Venus is in her detriment but is the Lady of the Ascendant, which is most appropriate for the Islamic Republic. Venus is the chart Almuten and is the planet of Islam. An examination of the Ascendant is a means to evaluate the relative strength of a native, which in this case is a nation. In relation to Aries, Libra is the weaker partner. The detrimental status of Venus only diminishes strength further.  Venus also disposits the Moon, in her exaltation but in the Eighth House of Death.

The Moon represents the common people as does the Sixth House, disposited by the Geater Benefic and in the sign of Venus’ Exaltation. However, Jupiter is retrograde and disposited by Mars.  The Moon in Venusian Taurus is Lady of the MC.

The Twelfth House of (among other things) self-undoing and secret enemies is the unfortunate position of the Part of Fortune.

The chart speaks strongly of a regime change and Iran cannot protect herself form open and secret enemies in a region that has seen the destruction of several countries, at least by herself. I do not see open warfare with Iran in the next while, but the regime change has been working its way forward for quite some time. The last thing Iran needs is more aggression from Israel, Saudi Arabia, the US or NATO wholes motivations have precious little to do with nuclear deals and everything to do with maintaining global hegemony and petrodollars.

Iran sentences woman to two years in jail for removing veil

Of course, Iran has its own internal struggles. She is a rich and ancient culture and is ill-suited to a dictatorial theocracy that features a specialized police force to enforce not only the wearing of veils but limits the colours that can be worn. There have been the well publicised anti hijab and ongoing human rights protests as well as the mostly unpublicised resurgence of the ancient Persian religion, Zoroastrianism among Kurds and ethnic Persians.  There have also been counter-protest and many believe the anti-hijab movement was instigated by foreigners.

Iran is clearly ripe for change.

Spring Equinox – Nowruz 2018

Aries Ingress 2018-03-20 G 16:15:25 UT Greenwich, United Kingdom 000° e 00′ 51° n 29′ Asc: 00°00′ Virgo, Moon: 08°36′ Taurus – showing Hermetic Lots

The Ingress of the Sun into zero degrees Aries marks the Spring Equinox and Nowruz. In some respects, this astrological event is the most important in the yearly cycle because it marks the astrological New Year and the chart provides us with insights into the entire year. Most importantly, we can derive the identity of the Lord or Lady of the Year – an influence which will be felt throughout.

This year the Moon exalted in Taurus in the Ninth House is the Lady of the  Year. The Sun is Exalted in Aries and we find Mars in his Exaltation with Saturn in his Domicile in the Fifth House. The planetary Day is Mars and the Planetary Hour belongs to Mercury. The Almuten of the charts is also Mars. Venus is in her Fall and Mercury is not strong in Aries. Both are Under the Beams – invisible due to the light of the Sun.

The Hyleg according to Ptolemy is the Moon. Much of this chart is a balancing act between the natures of Mars and Moon, but the Lady carries the day in the third Lunar Mansion. According to Cornelius Agrippa, this Mansion is called  Aldebram or Aldelamen: eye or head of Taurus. 8°34’17” Taurus.  destruction and hinderances of buildings, fountains, wells and gold mines, the flight of reptiles and creates discord revenge, separation, enmity & ill will  A soldier on a horse, holding a serpent in his right hand. However, Ibn Arabi suggests the Mansion is Universal Substance, prima materia – the last Divine Attribute. For those of you who have an interest in the Mansions, I recommend studying the principal stars of each one.

Illustration from the Divan of Hafez 1585 miniature. Iranians of all faiths – Muslims, Baha’is, and Zoroastrians turn to Hafiz on Nowruz, the Persian New Year, for guidance about the year to come. According to my friend in Afghanistan, the Divan is used as a kind of divination where the book is opened at a random page to read what it says.

I don’t go into great detail on the charts for the four Equinox/Solstices unless it is part of a specific prediction for two reasons. First of all, the chart will be significantly different for various locations.  The Equinox chart for Tehran, for example, has a Libra  Ascendant and the Moon in the Eighth house. More importantly, I think, these events are primarily a time of celebration and reflection. The Aries Ingress is the New Year and in Iran and other countries with a Persian diaspora, it is a time of cleansing and renewal in other spiritual and religious traditions also. The seasons resonate with us all.

The writer at tells us thatNowruz ceremonies are symbolic representations of two ancient concepts – the End and Rebirth. About 3000 years ago Persian’s major religion was Zoroastrianism, named in honor of its founder Zoroaster, and arguably the world’s first monotheistic religion. Zoroastrians had a festival called “Farvardgan” which lasted ten days and took place at the end of the solar year. It appears that this was a festival of sorrow and mourning, signifying the end of life while the festival of Nowruz, is at the beginning of spring signified rebirth, and was a time of great joy and celebration. Nowruz was officially acknowledged and named “Nowruz” by mythical Persian emperor, Shah Jamshid, from Achaemenid Dynasty (500 BC).”

Persian woman playing the traditional Kamancheh at Nowruz celebration.

For Nowruz,  each household will display symbolic items on a table, called a haft seen. On the haft seen, there is a minimum of  seven items, the names of which begin with the Iranian letter that looks like an “s.” Each and every item carries a meaning –  coins are for wealth, hyacinth flowers for rebirth, apples for health and beauty and germinated wheat or barley seeds for fertility. It’s a celebration of renewed life and the waxing light force. Comparable celebrations occur around the world, including Easter. The latter is timed using the Lunar Calendar, which is why it’s a  moveable feast. The theme remains new life, resurrection, and fertility.

Canadian Iranian Foundation – Nowruz-Gala 2006


Songs from the Gathas – Removing Spells & Illness

A Persian Zoroastrian King and his young son, Salmân al-Fârisî, enter a fire temple administered by three priests,

This is another of those topics which deserve a lengthy article, but for now a blog entry will have to suffice as an introduction to a highly complex topic. The video, shown below, was made available on YouTube by a Zoroastrian gentleman who has an extraordinary channel at Fereydoun Rasti Zoroastrianism & Iran If this material interests you, I heartily recommend looking through the extensive archives of videos. 

I posted this rather lengthy video because it uses the Zoroastrian scriptures known as the Gathas. The similarity to the Vedic word Gita (song) is no accident: Maneckji Nusservanji Dhalla states that “It is an uncontested fact that there is a marked closeness between the grammar,metre, and style of the Rig Veda and the Gathas.” (History of Zoroastrianism p11).. The power of words is emphasized in both and the verses are meant to be sung, as the title suggests.

Zoroastrianism posits, quite sensibly in my estimation, that this world is in a battle between good and evil. There are no specific scriptural comments on astrology per se in the Gatha period at least, but astrology certainly became an important element of Persian beliefs. It was already ubiquitous. Zoroastrianism is not known as a superstitious religion. It is widely believed that Zoroaster was a priest and a prophet, associated with the Magi. He is considered a magician in the true sense.

The creator, Ahura Mazda, has always affected human reasoning and therefore actions. The aim is to reveal to humanity their innate connection to the source of light and consciousness. It should come as no surprise that Zoroastrianism was the impetus and source of Mahayana Buddhism.

There is also an angelology – the idea of celestial forces that could be called upon.  Ahura Mazda is ineffable.  The point for our immediate concerns are that the Gathas were sung for devotional reasons and also used to mitigate or cast out what were considered evil forces, including common illnesses. This cosmology lends itself very well to an astrological framework, but not one in which the planets or angels had a will of their own, as it were. We come back to the to the question as to whether the stars impel or compel us. The creed of Zoroastrianism comes down to “good thoughts, good speech, and good action..” With this thing in mind the practise of singing the Gathas, we find that this is more a practical application of divine principles than superstition.

The counterpart to Ahura Mazda is Angra Mainyu also known as the “evil spirit.” This dark manifestation is ultimately set to be destroyed according to Zoroastrian eschatology  In the meantime, the kinds of practises described in the video presentation are regarded as wise and efficacious, much in the way a Hindu or Buddhist might consider a mantra. We don’t consider the practise of such things as being indicative of superstitious minds and certainly neither do those employing these remedies. This is the source of confusion for many when being introduced to the Good Religion, as it is frequently called. A Monotheistic faith that recognizes dual forces of light and darkness within that wholeness is actually a fair and apt description of life.


The study of ancient and classical astrology inevitably including spending a great deal of time on the history, culture and particularly the religion of ancient Persia. There are several reasons for this, but the primary one can be realized immediately by the strategic location of a land that once included most of what is now Afghanistan and beyond. She borders India and the Sik Road to China, promoting trade and the exchange of ideas. Moreover, she also bordered and later ruled Babylon, Assyria, and Sumeria.

The capturing of Babylon also include the liberation of the Jews by Darius, who went further and paid to gave the temple re-built. darius forbid the use of slaves.  Later on, Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great, whose teacher was no less than Aristotle, Alexander’s conquest of Asia was a bloody affair and many scholars and written material were lost forever when he set the torch to Persepolis, burning the city to the ground amongst an orgy of violence, in spite of the fact that the inhabitants have surrendered. That was one of the best cases that have ever been made against the excessive abuse of alcohol in decision making in all of history.

Even the most unjustly founded empires do in fact has some advantages and this is very much the case in the transmission of knowledge. The Hellenistic world united Greece with Egypt and  Persia with both. The School of Alexandria was among the greatest venues for shared knowledge, from Hindu astronomers and astrologers, Buddhists, Pythagorean, numerous Solar religions, Neo-Platonists, devotees of Isis, Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians. This place of extraordinary learning was to meet its own demise under the Muslim invasions.

It’s a Persian, Indian and Greek alchemy that produced what we now call Hellenistic astrology. But that is only the beginning.