The horoscope for the Vernal Equinox is among the most important considerations in Mundane (world) Astrology, not least because it provides us with the Lord or Lady of the Year.The chart I will be reading is specifically for PDT, although some elements will apply to all. Because the chart LOY is cardinal and in a cadent houser, The influence will be felt most strongly for perhaps 6 months.

This year, it occurs immediately prior to on the New Moon in Aries, with MC, Jupiter, Sun and Moon in the 9th house on the.The Sun is in his joy,occupying the first Lunar Mansion with Mercury in a is diurnal  chart. The Day and Hour are of the Moon. The Moon resides in the 28th Luna mansion-  echoing an Alpha and Omega.theme of the luminaries..

Let’s consider the Ascendant which occurs at 0:°︎Leo, the same degree and minute as the Sun, whom he disposits. .Aries is the Exaltation of the Sun which in turn is the Almuten,Figuris The Sun occupies the first Lunar Mansion with Mercury. The Moon is in the 28th Lunar mansion – Alpha and Omega. Moreover, the Sun is in his Joy in the 9th house.

Vernal Equinox – 20 Mar 2023 AD GC. 2:45:00 PM. Victoria, British Columbia PDT

One means of calculating the Lord or Lady of the Geniture is by reference to Essential and Accidental Dignities.This is most commonly used in horary and natal astrology and yields accurate results.. If we used this method, the Venus in her vespertine waxing phase in her own domicile in Taurus, free of the beams, in sect and  conjunct the Node is an extraordinary placement. The all-important Lord or Lady of the year is calculated with reference to the total of is the clear winner. As such she is very much the emissary of the chart. This position should by no means be ignored in the larger picture. It is important to note that this status of Venus remains constant across all time zones.

The Sun from Persian Manuscript 373 Wellcome Library

More often, in Mundane the primary considerations is judgment of the Ascendant. In the words of Mā Shā’ Allāh ibn Athari (Arabic: : ما شاء الله إبن أثري) )

” Therefore, if you wish to know the Lord of the Year, look at the Ascendant and its Lord, and at the Lord of the exaltation of the Ascendant (if there were an exaltation of some planet in that sign), and the Lord of the bounds and the triplicity, and the place of the hour from the Ascendant, and see of what kind are their places relative to each other, and what kind they are in the place of the enmity of the Ascendant, and which in place of friendship.” See Works of Sahl & Māshāʾallāh. Trans B.N. Dykes 2008 p, 325.

In this case, we need go no further. The Lord of the Year (LOY) is the Sun in the 9th house.(WS). He is in the decan of Mars and the bound of Jupiter. The Ascendant is in the decan of Saturn and bounds of Venus. Māshāʾallāh tells us that ” Aries and it’s triplicity (Leo and Sagittarius) are signs of the east; which if the came together with the Ascendant , their signification will be stronger.” (327 There is no significant impediment to the Sun’s position as LOY.

The 9th house rules philosophical matters, higher mind, the judicial system, morality, religion, diplomacy, foreign missions and the house of the Sun God in the Hellenistic tradition.  As mentioned, the Sun is in his joy in this house. The association with Mars, however may not bring out the best in him. There is rashness afoot.

It is here that the powerful Venus placement ameliorates the situation. The 9th house informs the 10th. The midheaven is in Aries, but the angular 10th holds Venus and the Node. This is a place of considerable power. With an unafflicted,Venus we have pleasantries such as the arts, music , as well as diplomacy and decorum. There is an association with peace when Venus is in this phase. But this particular placement speaks more than anything elses of feminine power..

Graphic illustration of Collection of Light

Mars is Gemini in the 11th will serve.Venus. There is a fascinating and comparatively rare phenomena in traditional astrologer referred to as the collection light and the effect is for light to be collected and transferred – in this case from the Sun. Moon and Mercury to a mercurial Mars. The themes continues.

As if to mirror this, Venus is in opposition to the Arabic Parts of Reason and Rectitude This placement tends to excess, even obsession. This is where the 9th house influence will provide some admittedly heated impetus.

In mundane astrology the 8th house signifies among other things natural catastrophes, debt, death rate of a country, import/export, other people’s money, taxes, litigations,  scarcity, the occult or hidden things generally., archeology, epidemics and litigations.

The Moon and the 6th house are co-significators of the common people and in the 8th, squared to Mars, they suffer greatly. With Saturn also in the 8th house, this is not  made a bit more gloomy. If we also consider the fact that there is no effective financial significator in the chart, this theme is underscored. We would not expect significant improvements in the economic realm this the areas this chart signifies.

To look more closely at the Moon, I would like to indicate what may be gleaned from reference to the Lunar Mansions according to Ibn Arabi. Note that I concur with Dykes that the sidereal mansions are the logical choice because the fixed stars are what defines them. See his comment in Astrology of the World I: The Ptolemaic Inheritance (2013) p. 16.

In this case, Luna is in Pisces in the final mansion. We might say, the end of the matter,.

The 28th Lunar Mansion starts from 17 PI 08′ 34″ and ends at 00 AR 00′ 00″. Considering this is immediately prior to the Sun’s position in the 1st mansion, this is immediately germane.The Arabic name is Al Batn al Hut, the belly of the fish.The constellation originally associated with this mansion is Andromeda.The principal star associated with this mansion is Mirach (beta Andromeda).The key theme here is one of endings. Dorotheus suggest that even a partnership beginning well, will end badly.

The Sun (LOY) is with Mercury in the 1st Lunar Mansion, Al-Sharatain, the horns of Aries The principal stars associated with this mansion are Sheratan (beta Aries) and Mesarthim (gamma Aries .According to Ptolemy, the nature of Sheratan is Mars and Saturn. Dorotheus suggests this mansion is Good for buying tame animals, for journeys, especially voyages, for making arms, planting trees, cutting hair or nails, putting on new clothes. importantly for the overall chart, this is not a place of compromise,.

This Spring will be noticeably drier and colder than average. May 16-24 are likely to be the rainy exception.Planting some crops may need to be delayed until this time.This will give way to much hotter than average weather as we approach the Summer Solstice.

Root vegetables such as carrots and parsnip do well in these conditions, as do most varieties of beans, melons and okra. Vegetables such as lentils, lettuces, peas and kale do not do well in hot dry conditions, so these should be planted as early as possible.

The cardinal equinoctial and solstice points are of the utmost importance in Mundane astrology. The ought to be recognized and celebrated as integral elements in a cosmic unfolding, a source of detailed information regarding events and conditions in our collective and personal lives. .


Anonymous English Artist, John Dee, c. 1594. Wellcome Library; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation

According to the source given at Astrotheme, John Dee was born in London [Tower Ward] England 13 Jul 1527 4:02:00 PM. He died December 1608, Mortlake, Surrey [now in Richmond upon Thames.   Several years ago I published a brief article on the Nativity of John Dee. At that time, I questioned the accuracy of the chart using house systems other than Whole Sign in particular. I had not yet developed my current interest in sidereal astrology, but even then I sensed problems with the most widely circulated chart. More recently, I had cause to reconsider the nativity in light of my current interest in Persian astrology and the Sassanian Ayanamsa. There were particularly strong cues that motivated my investigation As is the case on the vast majority of popular astrological sites on the web, the chart is presented employing the tropical zodiac and Placidus houses. Here I’m using Whole Signs for both the tropical and sidereal chart.

John Dee 13 Jul 1527 AD JC 4:02:00 PM London, England 0w10’00 51n30 00 LMT +00:00:40

I note that Jupiter and  Mercury are posited in the house of open enemies, the MC is disposited by Venus in her Fall and there is no support from the Eleventh House. We have a man who had eight children, but his Fifth House is in an infertile house and home to Saturn, disposited by a barren Venus in her Fall. The Sun in the Eighth may be interpreted as supporting that he was a spy with powerful occult interests, but much of the chart doesn’t describe what we know to be the case regarding Dee. Mars conjunct the Fixed Star Antares loses something essential in the Tropical chart by being projected onto the constellation Sagittarius, when in fact the star is the Heart of the Scorpion, We would expect a strong Mercurial element not shown in the tropical chart. Mars in Scorpio rather than the tropical Sagittarius is also a better fit in my view. Given these rather obvious differences, it surprises me that this chart has not been explored more than it has. particularly with respect to the powerful Mercurial energy and all that this implies. In short, the tropical chart appears to miss the mark. The writer at Seven Stars Astrology rightly states: “The zodiac choice is particularly complex in the context of Hellenistic astrology. The zodiac was borrowed from the Babylonians but new Hellenistic doctrines, including sign associations, arose at a time when sidereal and tropical zodiacs nearly coincided. Sign qualities in the Hellenistic period pertained to the seasonal calendar as well as the images of the constellations. Furthermore, some Hellenistic astrologers, ignorant of precession, including Thrasyllus and Vettius Valens, used the Babylonian zodiac, sometimes even into the 4th century CE. Meanwhile, Claudius Ptolemy of the  [3rd century] CE, cognizant of precession, set the stage for the widespread adoption of the tropical zodiac.” In the sidereal chart, I’m struck by the refined nature of Mars and the position of Mercury as Doryphory with Sirius in the stealthy and occult-oriented eighth house. To the best of my knowledge, this Nativity has not been read using a sidereal zodiac. The Sun remains in Cancer but is now in the ninth house, as would be expected of someone who travelled widely in the pursuit of philosophical knowledge.  Notably, Dee was perhaps the foremost expert on marine navigation of his time. and is justly credited with being influential in England’s developing naval prominence, most famously regarding his alleged role in the defeat of the Spanish Armada, but in a larger sense the firm idea of an Empire based on naval dominance. Mars is not only the Lord of the Geniture but also the chart Almuten. Given these rather obvious differences, it surprises me that this chart has not been explored more than it has. particularly with respect to the powerful Mercurial energy and all that this implies. Mars is not only the Lord of the Geniture but also the chart Almuten. The Hour belongs to Mars, the Day to Saturn.  This is a Diurnal, Full Moon chart, with the Luni-Solar elements on the 3/9 axis. The Moon is in the House of the Goddess and the Sun in the House of the Sun God. Luna is in the Decan of Mars and the Bounds of Venus. The Sun is in the Decan and Bounds of Mercury. Mars has the greatest Essential Dignity in the chart and Venus has the highest Accidental dignity.

John Dee Performing an Experiment before Elizabeth I – Henry Gillard Glindoni (1852-1913), -Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons

Some elements of the chart are almost absurdly literal. In the 9th House, the Sun is informing and influencing the Queen – Venus in Leo in the 10th. Dee’s Mars in Scorpio conjunct Antares is applying to the Sun. Mercurial Virgo is on the MC. Mercury has by far the greatest count of dignities. If we add Essential and Accidental dignities, we have a total of 17 points. Mercury is Free of the Beams and Occidental. Moreover, this theme repeats with Jupiter and Mercury now in Gemini in the 8th House of the occult, speaking of deep research and a fascination with magic. Dee’s now well-known writings on Angel Magic were appropriately concealed. In his introduction to John Dee’s Five Books of Mystery, Joseph S, Person writes: “The secret writings of John Dee, one of the leading scientists and occultists in Elizabethan England, record in minute detail his researches into the occult. They were discovered in a hidden compartment of an old chest along with various magical implements. Although the angels made him swear never to reveal these doctrines to anyone not sanctioned by them, he complained, “If no man, by no means, shall perceive anything hereof by me, I would think that I should not do well.” Nevertheless, these pages were carefully concealed and nearly lost forever.” Their recovery was in no small part due to Elias Ashmole’s interest in the occult in general and John Dee in particular.

Portrait of Elias Ashmole by John Riley, c. 1683

“Records indicate that Elias Ashmole had taken an interest in John Dee by the late 1640s. During this time, Ashmole contacted Dee’s son, Arthur, and asked if he could provide Ashmole with more information about his father. Arthur Dee responded by providing him with biographical information about his father and by giving Ashmole John Dee’s diaries. Although Ashmole collected the manuscripts of numerous scholars, he maintained a particular interest in Dr. John Dee. In addition to Dee’s works on alchemy and astrology, Ashmole collected his manuscripts on the study of mathematics and his records of English weather during the Tudor era. During the late 17th century, Ashmole was given more of John Dee’s manuscripts by Thomas Wale, who discovered them while his domestic servant was using the documents to line pie dishes.” See article in the Ashmolean collection. Some will baulk at this exercise; however, a sidereal reading of Dee’s nativity yields a wealth of information that accords with what we know about John Dee not available in the tropical chart. I would only ask that you exercise a “willing suspension of disbelief” long enough to assess what has been uncovered.


Caption Persian astronomy. Historical artwork showing a group of astronomers led by Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din Tusi (Nasireddin or Tusi, 1201-1275) at his observatory near Meraga (Maragheh) in what is now northwestern Iran. The observatory was established in 1259. Several other prominent astronomers worked here with Tusi. Twelve years of observations produced the Ilkhanic Tables of planetary movements, completed in 1272. This artwork is a miniature painting from the manuscript ‘Tevarih-i guzide’ (circa 1563).

With respect to the great Persian astrologers of the pre and early Islamic period of the Sassanian dynasty  (224-651 CE)  one requires some working knowledge of the influential Bundahisn, meaning “Primal  Creation,” also known as the Zoroastrian Book of Creation.

A series of cataclysmic invasions of Persia resulted in the destruction of the bulk of the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta. The first assault was suffered during Alexander of Macedonia’s invasion in 330 BCE. This was accompanied by devastation and mass killings of priests who had preserved the work in an oral tradition. Then between 640-650 CE came the Arab Muslim invasions bent on mass conversions and the burning of Persian texts, including the Avesta. What fragments remained were largely destroyed in the Mongol and Turkic invasions. The result is that “today, out of the twenty-one books of the Sassanian era Avesta, only one complete book and fragments of others survive. The surviving texts are nevertheless one and a half times the size of the Koran, and are arranged as five books plus fragments.” (See K. E. Eduljee).

This reality makes the recovery of the Greater Bundahishn that much more important. This brief article is meant as a concise introduction to the work and its enormous significance.

The Persian contribution to early astronomy and astrology should not be underestimated, At the time of Persian history, particularly from the last decades of the fifth century BC until Alexander’s conquest was the most fertile period of Babylonian mathematical astronomy.:

“Astronomical schools existed in Uruk, Sippar, Babylon and Borsippa. The Achaemenians maintained an atmosphere favourable to the development of science. Under Darius, a great Babylonian astronomer, Nabu-rimanni (Naburianus), was instructed to carry out a study of lunar eclipses and arrived at calculations more accurate than those of Ptolemy and Copernicus. His works were translated and used for many centuries by all including Seleucid and Parthian rulers of Persia. His picture of Heavens was borrowed by the Greeks and eventually reached the famous Greek scientist Democritus. The terminology employed by Naburianu includes spheres, orbits, ecliptic, inclination, celestial equator, poles, circular motion, revolutions, retrogression, moon’s highest north and south latitudes. All were used extensively by Greek astronomers including the brilliant Eudoxus of Cnidus, precursor of Euclid. Another well known Babylonian astronomer under Persian rule, Kidinnu (Cidenas) of Sippar, distinguished the solar year from the lunar, discovered the precession of the equinoxes and arrived at an exact calculation of the length of the year, making an error of only 7 minutes, 41 seconds.” See Astrology & Astronomy in Iran and Ancient Mesopotamia by Massoume Price.

As I have indicated elsewhere:, The Greater Bundahishn is a compendium of ideas that are believed to pre-date Zoroastrianism, but the core is true to the cosmology of that religion. There are also some elements that would indicate knowledge relatively contemporary to its ninth-century appearance.

Fortunately, a brilliant new critical edition and translation of this work was completed by Domenico Agostini & Samuel Thrope and published by OUP in 2020 All references to the Bundahisn in the current article to this edition, unless otherwise stated.

I will focus specifically on the Creation of the Lights as described in The Greater Iranian Bundahishn. I would contend that without an understanding of this, the astrological writers of the period can be but partially understood. It will become apparent that although the text is first and foremost a Zoroastrian and Persian text, it reveals the extent to which Hellenistic and Indian traditions were well understood by the Persian author(s).

It behoves us to familiarize ourselves with the philosophical, cosmological or mystical underpinnings of any given system. This is an essential step in understanding the context of extant writings in Persian astrology, of which there is an abundance, most of which has only recently been translated into English.

It is also important to understand that: “Astronomy and its companion ‘applied science’ of astrology, were central features of the intellectual landscape of the early Islamic period . Observations of the heavens as well as the science of astronomy, have long pedigrees in Iranian culture generally and in Zoroastrian texts specifically. During the Sassanian period, Babylonian, Greek, and Indian traditions were synthesized in a single science that was part of the inherited Islamic intellectual tradition. “A special class of professionals were active in the art at the Sasanian court, producing horoscopes and predictions, as well as serving as translators and specialists on mathematical and scientific issues.” (Bundahisn p.16).

In a commentary to his own translation, Zeke J.V. Kassock states that “The Bundahishn is a collection of ideas, cosmogonies, cosmologies, histories, genus species and geographies. Most information is from pre-Sassanian Iran and Sassanian Iran, though some are from post-Islamic Iran. It can be divided into two categories, the Greater (Iranian) Bundahishn, and the Lesser (Indian) Bundahishn.” (The Greater Iranian Bundahishn A Pahlavi Student’s 2013 Guide p.i )

This Greater Bundahishn is approximately twice as long. as the Lesser (Indian ) Bundahishn. Neither is considered scripture. The Greater, in particular, draws heavily from the Avesta and Zoroastrianism, often starting sentences with “Gōwēd pad Dēn
kū”, “It is said in the Religion.” (ibid.)

The Bundahishn, or Zoroastrian ‘Primal Creation’ 17th or 18th Century – British Library Mss Avestan 22The text of the Bunda­hišn “probably grew through different redactions, but it is not possible to provide a precise date the first compilation was made. . Most scholars subscribe to the view … that it is “an original work on cosmology in which the scattered teachings of the Avesta were coordinated and brought into a system by an author who, living presumably towards the end of the Sassanian epoch, possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of the Avestic literature … This author also had some knowledge of the Greek scientific literature that had reached Iran under the Sassanians. For example, the contents of chapter XXVIII bear a similarity to the Hippocratic treatise Peri hebdomádōn. Chapter II on astronomy manifests, besides nearly prehistoric views, an acquaintance with Greek and Indian science..” See the article in Encyclopedia Iranica for a more complete treatment of this.

The recent Oxford edition is splendid, distinguishing itself not only in its linguistic brilliance but also with respect to its insightful and extensive commentary. It is however expensive and is not likely to be available to most of my readers. I, therefore, quote from Zand-Akashi: Iranian or Greater Bundahishn. Trans. Behramgore Tehmurus Anklesaria Published for the Rahnumae Mazdayasnan Sabha by its Honorary Secretary Dastur Framroze A. Bode. Bombay 1965.

What follows is the complete text of the second chapter of The Bundahishn. using that edition. The entire chapter is less than three printed pages in length, but contains the essence of Persian astronomical sensibility.

CHAPTER II: As regards the procreation of the Luminaries.

Illustration of the zodiac in the Bundahišn, ed. and tr. M. Bahar, 1990, p. 58.

1. Ohrmaz created [forth] the Luminaries, between the Sky and the Earth; the stars of the constellations and also those which were not of the constellations [were stationed], then the Moon, and then the Sun.

2. As, He first created the firmament; the stars of the constellations were fixed thereon, especially these twelve, whose names are: the Ram, the Cow, the Twins, the Crab, the Lion, the Husk of Corn, the Balance, the Scorpion, the Centaur, the Goat, the Pot, and the Fishes, which are subdivided into twenty-eight asterisms of reckoning, the names of which [are these]: Padevar, Pesh-parviz, Parviz, Paha, Aze-sar, Beshn, Rakhvat, Taraha, Azara, Nahn, Maian, Avdem, Mashaha, Spor, Husru, Sroi, Nur, Gelu, Grafsha, Varant, Gao, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kaht-sar, Vaht, Mayan, Kaht; all the original material creations made their residence thereon, so that when the Adversary, would arrive, they might fight against their own enemy and the creatures might be saved from their antagonist; each of these constellations is a specimen of a soldier and veteran, who is

posted for battle; six thousand four hundred eighty (thousand) small stars are created forth, for help, [those which the astronomers now number, besides those innumerable, as, they are for their mutual-help.]

3. Over these constellations, He appointed four chieftains, in four directions; He appointed a chieftain over these chieftains; He appointed many innumerable stars that are [33] recognised by name, in various directions and various places, as givers of vigour, by cooperation, to these Constellations.

Constellations of Ursa Major, detail, from Persian Manuscript 373. Zodiac. MS PERSIAN (373). Work ID: mcauucez.

4. As one says: “Sirius [Tishtar] is the chieftain of the East, Sataves the chieftain of the South, Antares [Vanand] the chieftain of the West, the Seven Bears [Haptoring] the chieftain of the North; the Lord of the throne, Capicornus, whom they call the Lord of Mid- Heaven, [is the chieftain of chieftains; Parand, Mazd-tat, and others of this list are also chiefs of the directions

5. And astronomers call these stars of the directions and sides as leaders; and they mention the first magnitude, the third magnitude, …… as to the big, small, and middling stars.

6. He ordained this firmament in the semblance of a year: the twelve constellations like twelve months every constellation having thirty degrees, just as every month has thirty days.

7. He appointed the Seven Bears [Haptoring] in the Northern direction, thither where Dozakh [=hell -JHP] was, when the Adversary came in; a band from every region, out of the seven regions, is attached to it, for the organisation of the regions, in the mingled state: for that reason, it is called the’ Seven Thrones.’

8. He ordained the sphere, nature and class of these constellations so that they might remain in motion, in the mingled state.

9. Again, He arrayed, above them, the unmixable stars, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might repel him in the combat, and would not let him mingle with the higher sphere; He appointed the Glory of the good Mazdayasnian Religion, as chieftain

The horoscope of the world, after D. N. MacKenzie, “Zoroastrian Astrology in the ‘Bundahišn’,” BSOAS 273, 1964, p. 514.

over them; the place is called the brunt of the battle, the manifestation of purity in the mingled state; for this reason, they are called unmixable stars, because, when the Adversary came, they did not mingle with him; astronomers name a firmament which is above the firmament, where through there is no ebb and descent, for they cannot judge the mixable stars and the substance of the pure-bodies.

10. Above that, He created the Moon having the seed of the Beneficent Animal.

11. Above that, He created the shining swift-horsed Sun.

12. He appointed the Moon and [35] the Sun, as chieftains of those mixable stars; that is, they are all bound to the Sun and the Moon.

13. Above the Sun. He created the Throne of the Beneficent Immortals, which is attached to the Endless Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd.

14. These, too, are the six stations of the six creations, just as the creations of material life are six.

15. And in the midst of the half of the firmament, He appointed the Wind, the Cloud and the Fire Vazisht, so that, when the Adversary would arrive, they might seize the water of Sirius and produce rain; with the Spirit of the Water; He formed their connection, too, also with the Sun; the Moon, and the Stars; His valiant Sirius, who is the Chieftain of the East, is co-worker and associate of the Fire Vazisht, the Wind and the Cloud.

16. Of these stars, the big ones are as large as an eagle which is of the magnitude of a house, the middling are as large as a four-sided granary, and the small ones are as large as the head of a domestic ox; the Moon is as large as a race-course of two hathras; as, each hathra on earth is like an average frasang; the Sun is as large as Eranvej.

17. Until the coming of the Adversary, the Moon, the Sun and the stars were standing still, they did not move, and were passing their time with purity, and it was always mid-day; after the coming of the Adversary, they were in motion and would not desist from that motion, until the end.

18. The motion of the Sun is like that of a very large three-feathered arrow, when a very big man darts it from a very large bow; the motion of the Moon is just like that of an average three-feathered arrow, when an average man darts it, from an average bow; the motion of the stars is like that of a small three-feathered arrow, when a short man darts it from a small bow.

19. Of these constellations; Tishtar [Orion], Besn, Taraha, Azara, Pateywar, and Pesh-parviz are of very swift motion.

Sirius (bottom) and the constellation Orion (right). The three brightest stars in this image—Sirius, Betelgeuse (top right) and Procyon (top left)—form the Winter Triangle. The bright star at top center is Alhena, which forms a cross-shaped asterism with the Winter Triangle.

20. The mean duration of the Sun, from the time when it leaves a constellation until it attains to the next, is as much as is requisite for a man who takes up a stone and throws it.

This brief introduction to the core of the Zoroastrian myth as it relates specifically to the operation of the planets, luminaries and fixed stars provides valuable context in relation to the study of Persian astronomy and  astrology. In a subsequent article, we may address the nature of the constellations in greater detail.